Rio proves low-carbon iron-making process

23rd November 2022 By: Esmarie Iannucci - Creamer Media Senior Deputy Editor: Australasia

PERTH ( – Diversified miner Rio Tinto this week said that it has proven the effectiveness of its low-carbon iron-making process using ores from its mines in Australia in a small-scale pilot plant in Germany.

The company is now planning the development of a larger-scale pilot plant to further assess its potential to help decarbonise the steel value chain.

The process, known as BioIron, uses raw biomass instead of metallurgical coal as a reductant and microwave energy to convert Pilbara iron-ore to metallic iron in the steelmaking process. BioIron has the potential to support near-zero carbon dioxide steelmaking, and can result in net negative emissions if linked with carbon capture and storage.

Over the past 18 months, the process has been tested extensively in Germany by a project team from Rio Tinto, sustainable technology company Metso Outotec, and the University of Nottingham’s Microwave Process Engineering Group. Development work was conducted in a small-scale pilot plant using batches of 1 000 golf ball-sized iron-ore and biomass briquettes.

“Finding low-carbon solutions for iron and steelmaking is critical for the world as we tackle the challenges of climate change. Proving BioIron works at this scale is an exciting development given the implications it could have for global decarbonisation,” Rio chief commercial office Alf Barrios said.

“The results from this initial testing phase show great promise and demonstrate that the BioIron process is well suited to Pilbara iron-ore fines. BioIron is just one of the pathways we are developing in our decarbonisation work with our customers, universities and industry to reduce carbon emissions right across the steel value chain.”

Rio told shareholders that BioIron’s potential was confirmed in a comprehensive and independent technical review by global engineering firm Hatch, which noted BioIron’s capacity to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions while converting Pilbara iron-ore into iron and steel.

The BioIron process will now be tested on a larger scale, at a specially designed continuous pilot plant with a capacity of one tonne an hour. The design of the pilot plant is underway and Rio Tinto is considering suitable locations for its construction.

To address the complexities around the use of biomass supply, Rio is undertaking a benchmarking study of biomass certification processes. Through discussions with environmental groups, as a first step Rio have ruled out sources that support the logging of old growth and High Conservation Value forests.